Alcide De Gasperi
Alcide de Gasperi was born 3rd April 1881 in Pieve Tesino, when this regions, where Italian was used, was the property of the Austriac – Hungarian Empire. The land of his predecessors is Sardana – the hill which is reying above the Trento city. Since his early years, Alcide de Gasperi led a lonely life. Alcide, since he lived in Grigno, and later in Civezzano, introvertic from the character, but at the same time he was confident about his goals that he wanted to achieve, he found himself confronting two local priests, who checked his intellectual level. They both were sure that they found a religious boy, whom study in seminar would convert into a good priest. They orientated life of Alcide to a local school, howeber he did not feel as ment to be a priest. He found out that his mission was is being in the world of politics. He wanted to serve for his nation – be present at the local markets. At the age of 16 he left school.
Speech in Milano 1946
When he was in prison in 1927, writing to his wife, he retrospects to this convocation: …there is many people who in politics who go for a short trip, like dyletants, and others, according to their opinion, it’s only an addition of second importance. But for me, since I was a little boy, it was my career, my mission.. (“Letter from the prison” 6th August 1927).
At the age of 16, still living in Civezzano, he got in to the high school on via Trinita’. To this high school attended mostly rich people, and youth from this environment are in a majority liberals, masons and socialists. In the same rows 7 years earlier was sitting Cesare Battisti, next great enemy of de Gasperi. Alcide, who already in Grigno, having 10 years old was not very talkable, he was more concentrated on observing than on participating, there is a need for listening in him, and later skills for distinguishing form from material, to create himself, to understand others.
After graduating from high school in 1890 he started University at the faculties of literature and philosophy. First year he spent in Innsbruck, and then he continued in Vienna. In Innsbruck, and later in Vienna, de Gasperi is going deeper into his cristian – social culture. Those times were dominated by democratic proposition of Murri, Taniolo i Don Sturzo. Traveling between Innsbruck, Vienna and Trento not only he developed his culture in academic environment, but he was maturing for a political life.
In Trento, when he was on a second year, he became a president of catholics and during his first speech, he was appealing for paying attention for culture and the perspective of social activity. This is what in the age of 21 was saying a student Alcide de Gasperi to his friends students from AUCT ( Catholic Society, Trentini).
De Gasperi after graduation
After graduating, when he comes back to Trento, 21st July 1905, he is nominated for the chief editor of “La Voce Cattolica”. De Gasperi, when he’s accepting the nomination he introduces himself, expressing his will: There is a need of separating of social action and an activity strictly political. First on is created by a catholic working society and all small societies, the second presents itself in a political meetings.
In this moment, not having even 25 years old, Alcide de Gasperi is becoming a diamond in a political life of Trento. In 1909 he becomes a member of Trento government, in 1911 he becomes a member of Vienna parliament. In Austrian political life young de Gasperi starts to take first steps from his future 10 years of political career. In parliament of Vienna he is more of a representative of whole society of Trento than a certain political party, not forgetting about values and rules of the party that he comes from.
Alcide De Gasperi with his family
After World War I, after coming Trentino Alto Adige to Italy, a man of politics of Trento is continuing his political activity in Italian Peoples Party, ran by Luigi Don Sturzo. He becomes in a short time a party leader and he substitutes Sturzo. In the beginning he supported Mussolini’s government. But very fast he stood up against the violence of the regime. De Gasperi was one of the few leaders, who did not accept agreements with the regime, although in the beginning he wanted to be a part of Mussolini’s government.
As a consequence of his stubborn opposition, at first he was isolated, later he was separated from the Parliament. In 1926 under threats, he quits the position of chief editor of “Nuovo Trentino”. 6th November he was accused and he had a fake trial. In 1926, with other politicians, he was deprived of the parliament mandate. In 1927 he got arrested for 4 years. Without any success intervened a Pope Pius XI and De Gasperi got conditionally released and worked at the Vatican’s library.
In World War II Alcide de Gasperi was an active person in the resistance, and in 1943 he cofounded an Italian Cristian-Democratic Party.
Support from the USA - Marshall Plan 1947
After World War II until 1st July 1945 was created first government with the representatives of all antifascist party: De Gasperi is also a minister of foreign affairs . Overall he was a prime minister 8 times.
Alcide De Gasperi as the Prime Minister
The biggest input of De Gasperi politics was a foreign policy and creating an embryo of the future European Union: it was a great chance for Italians and for the Italy, to overcome the difficulties. Europe had in Alcide de Gasperi one of the fathers most noble and finest.
Alcide de Gasperi, like Adenauer and Schuman thought that the biggest problem is the German question. Churchill in September 1946 said that “rebuild of Europe must be connected with the rebuild of the Germany and there is a need to think of creating United States of Europe.”
Peace conference in Paris 1947
From this reason De Gasperi and Schuman were deeply engaged in creating the Commonwealth of Carbon and Coal, first organization above all the nations in Europe. 18th May 1951 borns “Small Europe”. Alcide used to say: “When we talk about peace we think of common work, when we talk about solidarity we think of economic cooperation.” De Gasperi thought that those ideas should be not only among the nations of Europe but the whole world.
Alcide de Gasperi in the candidate to be blessed of Roman-catholic church. His trial began 29th April 1993 in Trento.
Photos taken from:
1. Speech in Milano 1946 – Fondazione Alcide De Gasperi www.fondazionedegasperi.it
2. Alcide De Gasperi after graduation– http://www.ie.lodz.pl/cdk/galeria.html
3. Alcide de Gasperi with family – www.questotrentino.it
4. Support from the USA - Marshall Plan 1947 – Fondazione Alcide De Gasperi www.fondazionedegasperi.it
5. Alcide De Gasperi as the Prime Minister - 1945-1953 – www.life.com
6. Peace conference in Paris 1947 – Fondazione Alcide De Gasperi – www.fondazionedegasperi.it